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viii                        INTRODUCTION

produce a class of young Chinese, both men and women, but
chiefly men, who frankly did not know how to live in their own
country or in the age in which their country still was. They
were for the most part educated abroad, where they forgot the
realities of their own race. It was easy enough for various
revolutionary leaders to persuade these alienated minds that
China's so-called backwardness was due primarily to political
and material interference by foreign powers. The world was
made the scapegoat for China's medievalism. Instead of
realizing that China was in her own way making her own
steps, slowly, it is true, and somewhat ponderously, toward
modernity, it was easy hue and cry to say that if it had not
been for foreigners she would have been already on an equality,
in material terms, with other nations.

The result of this was a fresh revolution of a sort. China
practically rid herself of her two great grievances outside of
Japan, extraterritoriality and the tariff. No great visible
change appeared as a consequence. It became apparent that
what had been weaknesses were still weaknesses, and that
these were inherent in the ideology of the people. It was found,
for instance, that when a revolutionary leader became secure
and entrenched he became conservative and as corrupt, too
often, as an old style official. The same has been true in other
histories. There were too many honest and intelligent young
minds in China not to observe and accept the truth, that the
outside world had very little to do with China's condition, and
what she had to do with it could have been prevented if China
hadbeen earlier less sluggish and her leaders less blind and selfish.

Then followed a period of despair and frenzy and increased
idealistic worship of the West. The evident prosperity of
foreign countries was felt to be a direct fruit of Western scientific
development. It was a time when the inferiority complex was
rampant in China, and the young patriots were divided between
mortification at what their country was and desire to conceal
it from foreigners. There was no truth to be found in them,
so far as their own country was concerned. They at once hated
and admired the foreigners.

What would have happened if the West had continued
prosperous and at peace cannot be said* It is enough that the